Samples were also examined by Incognita-Ray fluorescence spectroscopy by means of verso Surface Filmato instrument supplied by Assing

Samples were also examined by Incognita-Ray fluorescence spectroscopy by means of verso Surface Filmato instrument supplied by Assing

The XRF spectra were obtained with the following experimental conditions: Mo tube operating at 25 kV voltage and 300 ?A beam current; scan time 120 s; distance 95 mm.

Regarding wood samples, thin sections were obtained according esatto the anatomic wood directions and described following the IAWA list of microscopic features for hardwood and softwood identification [12, 13]. Thin sections of the wood sample were examined under a Polyvar 100 optical microscope equipped with verso PIXeLINK digital camera.

Temperature (T) and imparfaite humidity (RH) values have been recorded through a digital data logger Registro 177-H1 model. The giorno logger has been calibrated and hanged on the northern wall of presbytery. Momento have been recorded from 26 of July onesto 8 of September and then elaborated by Excel software puro obtain maximum, minimum, average values and canone deviation throughout the analysed period. The temperature and incomplete humidity performance and failure indexes were also calculated and showed per the tolerance matrix, con order sicuro obtain a synthetic expression of the results [14, 15].

Painting material analysis

Stratigraphic and chemical analysis revealed the presence of superimposed layers constituted by several different materials. For this kind of artefacts it is usual to find many superimposed painted layers paio esatto a continuous usage of the object that has got verso demo-ethno anthropological significance. Sopra Figure 5 the ciclocampestre sections of the painting samples are showed. The white layer characterized by an intense yellow fluorescence is constituted by zinc white a pigment widely used starting from 19 th century. According preciso this result it is possible sicuro assess that the surface painted layer was certainly applied during the 19 th or later. The painted layers were applied over gypsum and glue, as revealed by FTIR analysis and UV fluorescence examination of the ciclocross sections. Glue exhibits per light blue fluorescence under UV lighting. At last, in sample ASN2 and ASN4 an orange UV fluorescence can be observed. This fluorescence can be associated sicuro the presence of shellac, per natural resin often used with the function preciso isolate the priming or the support before applying the painted layers or the setting respectively.

Results and conversation

Microphotographs of samples ASN1 (Verso, B), ASN2 (C, D), ASN4 (Ancora, F) and ASN5 (G, H), under reflected light (Per, C, Di nuovo, G) and UV fluorescence (B, D, F, H).

As example of infrared analysis result, the FTIR spectrum of sample ASN1 is showed (Figure 6). The main compound is gypsum with the bands at: 3485 cm -1 , 3400 cm -1 , 1621 cm -1 , 1111 cm -1 , 684 cm -1 and 609 cm -1 . Moreover, calcium carbonate (bands at: 2513 cm -1 , 1797 cm -1 , 1431 cm -1 and 875 cm -1 ), a siccative oil (bands at 2924 cm -1 , 2854 cm -1 , 1737 cm -1 and 1713 cm -1 ) and iron oxides (peak at 528 and 470 cm -1 ) are present. In sample ASN4, also the bands associated esatto proteinaceous compounds have been detected, mediante particular the 1540 cm -1 peak paio preciso amide II [16, 17].

XRF analysis revealed the presence of zinc con all the examined samples but also of lead (Table 2). According onesto this result we can say that the white layer, visible per sample ASN2 and ASN5 ciclocross sections was probably made of lead white. This painting was realized previously sopra respect puro that made of zinc white. The presence of iron suggests the use of red, yellow and brown ochre. The green grains visible sopra the ciclocampestre section of sample ASN2 are made of per copper based pigment. Sample ASN3, defined as gilding, contains zinc and copper suggesting the presence of brass powder used onesto imitate gold. Arsenic is per component of the alloy. The use of brass esatto imitate gold was particularly diffused during the 18 th century, especially esatto produce objects employed on the occasion of popular and traditional festivities .